In the previous part, I implemented the UI using Vue. In this part, I am going to write about the deployment process using dokku. This simple chat app is split into 3 separate services api, faye and web. Each service can be deployed independently without affecting other running services.

Let’s look at the final result first. The application is deployed to which contains the production version (built and minified JS code) of the web UI. This UI connects to the API server at which contains the code for api service. And finally, faye service is deployed to ws://

This kind of setup seems to be too complicated for this tiny application. However, as the application gets bigger, this setup really shines. Imagine that when your application grows bigger, you will probably have more independent services, let say 10 of them. Once you make new changes to the UI, you probably don’t want to deploy the UI code together with all 9 other services which are exactly the same as they were before. With the current state of technology, deploying 9 more services to one server is nothing. But when you have 100 servers, this becomes a huge problem because you are unnecessarily deploying all of your services to all of your servers every time you change one line of code in any of your services. This setup also makes it easier to scale one particular service. Since each service is implemented as an isolated component, I can easily monitor and scale services that are under extensive use.

Deploy api service

Let’s look at the final script first

ssh apps:create simple-chat-api
tar --exclude='src/chat.sqlite' -cv src package.json start.js -C .dokku CHECKS | ssh tar:in simple-chat-api

First, I need to create the dokku app named simple-chat-api. Then, I can simply do a tar deployment. The tar part is quite tricky. I usually put dokku specific files (CHECKS for example) into .dokku folder. So, my tar command consists of 2 parts

  • First part gets all the necessary files and folders in the root directory (src, package.json and start.js). Since I am using sqlite, I also want to exclude it
  • Second part changes the working directory to .dokku and appends CHECKS file to the tar content

Finally, the tar content is pushed to the dokku server and dokku will take care the rest.

Deploy faye service

The script for faye service is almost the same as that of api service

ssh apps:create simple-chat-faye
tar -cv src package.json start.js -C .dokku CHECKS nginx.conf.sigil | ssh tar:in simple-chat-faye

The difference here is the new nginx.conf.sigil file. This file basically overwrites the default nginx config that dokku uses. The reason for this setup is to allow cross-domain communication.

In api service, I handle this at the code level using this middleware for express.

  origin: config.get('web.url'),
  credentials: true

I can do the same for faye service but I will do something else to demonstrate a different way to allow cross-domain communication. The nginx config has these 4 extra headers added to allow cross-domain communication

add_header 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' '';
add_header 'Access-Control-Allow-Credentials' 'true';
add_header 'Access-Control-Allow-Methods' 'GET, POST, DELETE, PUT, OPTIONS';
add_header 'Access-Control-Allow-Headers' '*';

This approach is powerful but not practical because now I have to hard-code the web UI domain in the nginx config template. With the approach in api service, everything is centralized in one config file which makes it easier to manage and maintain.

Deploy web service

This process is similar to the other 2 services with 2 extra steps

ssh apps:create simple-chat
NODE_ENV=production npm run build
touch dist/.static
tar c dist | ssh tar:in simple-chat

First step is to build the production files using webpack. Second step is to tag this deployment as static by creating an empty file named .static to let dokku know that it should use nginx-buildpack to build web app.

Final thoughts

With this simple chat app, I have demonstrated how to develop and deploy a project using Nodejs (express, faye), Vue and Dokku. I am using this same kind of structure at work and for my hobby projects. I am pretty happy with it and don’t have any problem so far.

I have a positive impression about Vue as a front-end development framework. It’s very simple to get into, the learning curve is not as big as I thought. I will definitely use it for my next hobby project, and if possible try to use it at work.